Are you a developer? Then it is obvious that you need a better programming language but, identifying the best language and tools is not an easy task.
Have you heard of Django? Or Are you familiar with its pros and cons? Let’s analyze the tool more thoroughly with the Top 50+ Django Interview Questions and Answers for beginners.
Django Interview Questions and Answers for Beginners in 2021
Let me help you to figure out if Django is the right framework for their next project!
Don’t grab onto a particular programming language or framework just because you used it in your previous project, or simply because you are familiar with it. This is not how things are done.
Before starting any new project you must evaluate which framework is best for you to achieve the results you desire. What is most important to you? Security, development speed, scalability, versatility, support?
It is better to make an informed decision before starting work than to repent of a hasty later. These Django Interview questions will surely help you out! Also, Check out what are the Difference Between Django and Laravel
What is Django?
Django is one of the most popular web application frameworks today. This is a handy and open-source framework used for rapid development.
The framework offers great value for any web development project. This technology comes with a set of ready-made components that help speed up and simplify the process of creating web applications.
The framework contains flexible components that implement the most common functionality we find in web applications. For example, user authentication, control panel, file uploads, and more.
However, with this technology, web developers don’t have to reinvent the wheel every time. You don’t need to create these components from scratch.
The framework helps them save time, speed up the software development process, and focus on the aspects. All this makes the web application unique in the market.
What is the latest and stable version of Django?
The latest official and stable version of Django is 3.1.7.
What are the features of Django?
There are some noteworthy features of Django that have made this framework a key technology in web development. They are:
1- Python programming language
Python is one of the most popular languages in the world. Finding talented Python developers is easy. It offers a plethora of tools, libraries, frameworks, and plugins. Developers can take advantage of the vast array of Python / Django libraries to quickly build functionality.
Django framework offers the right project structure. This structure helps developers to understand the flow and where to implement any new functionality.
3- Batteries included
You can count on having all the basic web functionality already included. Software teams developing web applications can take advantage of free authentication, admin panel, or semi-automated database migration from Python code, a lightweight development web server, and more.
This aspect makes developers work faster – they just don’t need to implement this basic stuff.
The framework is surrounded by a vibrant community of passionate developers who will help you solve any problem you may encounter.
They are behind many useful packages that extend Django’s capabilities.
Q4. What are the advantages/disadvantages of Django?
Django is not only an effective solution for web development but also a convenient platform for interacting with clients and developers. Django has the following advantages and disadvantages:
● Operational work: The framework saves time and resources at the stage of formulating the goal, developing and releasing the project itself, etc. Thus, it is an ideal solution for cases when the deadline is a priority.
● Extended complete set of features: The framework boasts an impressive list of additional features to simplify user and sitemap authentication, RSS, administration, and more.
● High level of security: By choosing Django, you are protecting yourself from common project threats such as SQL injection, cross-site scripting, clickjacking, and more.
To increase the efficiency of user logins and passwords, a user authentication system is used as a key.
● Scalability: Django can handle both limited projects and high traffic.
● Multifunctionality: The framework can solve a wide variety of tasks: servicing large organizations, ensuring the operation of computing platforms, content management, etc.
● Django is more complex.
● Adapting Django ORM for the needs, goals, and objectives of your project is much more difficult than adopting the same SQLAlchemy or other analogues.
Q5. Explain the use of the session framework in Django?
Django fully supports anonymous sessions. The session infrastructure allows you to store and retrieve arbitrary data on a one-site, one-visitor basis.
Data is stored on the server-side; sending and receiving cookies is transparent.
Q6. How do you connect your Django project to the database?
To connect your Django project to the database you can use the following steps:
● Install MySQL
● Now create the initial Django skeleton
● Go through the settings and make the necessary edits
● Now, install My SQL Database connector
● Create a database
● Add the MySQL Database Connection to your Application
● Test MySQL Connection to Django project
● You are done!
Q7. What is the difference between a Project and an App?
The project includes the application including all the other parts as well. On the other hand, an application is just a submodule of the project.
Q8. What is mixin?
Mixin is nothing but an interface with implemented methods. It allows the programmer to insert codes. The main purpose of mixins is to provide some additional methods.
In other words, mixin classes, or mixins as they are called, are a limited form of multiple inheritances.
Specifically, in the context of the Python language, a mixin is a parent class that provides functionality to subclasses but is not intended to instantiate itself.
Q9. When can you use iterators in Django ORM?
You can use iterators when you don’t want the results to be cached. When you use an iterator()it does not check the cache and reads the results directly from the database.
So, for a Query Set returning a large number of objects that require a lot of cache memory but you only need to access once, you can use iterator().
Q10. What is the role of Cookie in Django?
Whenever you visit a page, the browser for the Web server to store a small piece of information.
Every time a browser requests a page from a certain server, it receives a reply from the server.
At the same time, a copy is also saved to verify whether the browser login is the same user.
It exists on the server, and Django stores the session in the database by default.
Q11. Django is an MVC-based framework, how does this framework implement MVC?
As a concept, the MVC design pattern is very simple and easy to understand.
Mode(M): Model, or display your data. It is not physical data, but a data interface. The model allows you to submit your data without understanding the underlying complex database.
View(V): The view is what you can see. It is the presentation layer of the model. In your computer, the view is the web application (Web app) you can see in the browser or the UI interface of the desktop application.
Controller(C): The controller, which controls the flow of information between the model and the view.
Django closely follows the MVC pattern, but it uses its own logic in its implementation.
Q12. Why is Django called a loosely coupled framework?
Django is called a loosely coupled framework because of the architecture it is based upon. Django is based on the MVC pattern. This design encourages loose coupling and strict separation of different parts of the application.
In the MVC pattern since C is handled by the framework itself, and Django is more concerned with models (Model), templates (Template), and views (Views), Django is also known as the MTV framework. In the MTV development mode:
● M stands for Model, which is the data access layer. This layer handles all transactions related to data: how to access, how to confirm the validity, what actions are included, and the relationship between data, etc.
● T stands for Template, which is the presentation layer. This layer deals with performance-related decisions: how to display it on a page or other type of document.
● V stands for View, which is the business logic layer. This layer contains the logic for accessing the model and calling the appropriate template.
You can think of it as a bridge between the model and the template.
Thus, it is because of this pattern that there is a clear-cut separation between the server code and the client’s machine.
Q13. Explain the importance of the settings.py file and what data/ settings it contains.
Setting.py is the standard configuration for Django-based projects. A settings file is just a Python module with module variables.
It just contains a few Django settings that would be required to successfully build an application.
Q14. Why permanent redirecting is not a good option?
Permanent redirection is not a good option because it may make your site vulnerable to attacks. Sometimes bad redirects can have severe impacts on your website ranking so, you need to be careful while choosing the redirect for your page.
Q15. Explain context variable lookups in Django.
In Django, a context is the name of the variable. The template is rendered through the context. A context variable is a dictionary that maps Python objects to template variables.
The Context variable lookup
● The period (. ) is the key to amylase the complex data structures in Django templates. The dot can access the keys, attributes, methods, or indexes of the dictionary. Suppose we pass a Python dictionary to the template. If you want to access the value in that dictionary by key, use the dot notation.
● Note that there are no parentheses in the method call. In addition, you cannot pass variables to the method, you can only call the method without parameters. Negative indexes are not allowed.
● When the template system encounters the dot in the variable name, it will try to find it in the following order:
● Dictionary lookup (such as foo[“bar”])
● Property lookup (such as foo. bar)
● Method call (such as foo.bar())
● List index lookup (such as foo)
● The template system will use the first available type, which is a short-circuit logic.
Point ID search can be nested for multiple levels.
Generally speaking, if the variable does not exist, the template system inserts the string_if_invalid configuration option of the engine at the variable.
The default value of this option is an empty string.
Talking about the context processor, The Context Processor can return some data, which can be used in the global template.
For example, the user information after login needs to be used on many pages, so we can put it in the context processor, there is no need to return this object in every view function.
Q16. What are custom validation rules in form data?
Custom validation rules make sure that the data submitted by the user through forms meet the required standards.
Validation rules are concerned with data entered in each cell.
This is exactly what happens when you enter the wrong data in the cell and you are immediately notified that the data entered by you is invalid. So, this is how custom validation rules function.
Q17. What is the difference between authentication and authorization?
You might have seen these terms being used interchangeably but there is a difference between the two.
Authentication- The authentication method will determine the user’s identity before revealing sensitive information. This is essential for systems or interfaces where users prioritize the protection of confidential information.
In this process, the user makes a provable claim on the identity of the individual (him or her) or the identity of the entity.
Credentials or statements can be usernames, passwords, fingers, etc. Issues such as authentication and non-repudiation are handled in the application layer.
Inefficient authentication mechanisms may severely affect the availability of services.
Authorization- It is the process of verifying that you have access to certain content. Gain access to resources (such as directories on the hard disk), because the permissions configured on the resources allow you to access authorization.
Q18. Explain the use of migrate command in Django?
Django uses migrations to push changes in models (adding a field, deleting a model, etc.) to the database structure. The migrate command applies migrations to all applications in Installed apps.
Q19. What is CSRF?
CSRF is an acronym for Cross-Site Request Forgery. It is a web security threat in which the attacker has an access to users’ personal information which can then be used to fulfill their malicious needs. The users are forced to submit requests against their wishes, and as a result, the web application loses trust in the authenticated user.
Q20. Can you tell us something about the Django admin interface?
Django’s admin interface is very powerful and flexible. The default version will give you a fully functional administration suite for your site.
While an admin application should be sufficient for most needs, Django offers several ways to customize and improve it.
In addition to specifying which models are available in the administration interface, you can also specify how pages are presented and even override the templates used to display administration pages.
Q21. How are RESTful APIs beneficial for developers?
Flexibility is what steals the hearts of the developers and that is exactly what RESTful APIs provide. It is not easy to work with but it also offers a greater variety of data formats.
Q22. What is the use of the include function in the urls.py file in Django?
Whenever include () is used in Django, it cuts off any portion of the URL that matches that point and sends the rest of the string to the included URLconf for further processing.
Q23. What is the typical usage of middlewares in Django?
Middleware is a light plugin that alters input and output in Django. Each component of middleware performs a specific function.
Q24. How to implement social login authentication in Django?
Follow the steps listed below to implement social login authentication in Django:
1. Add the appropriate Allauth app to INSTALLED_APPS in the settings file.
2. Create an OAuth app on the provider’s developer site and take note of the tokens/keys/secret.
3. Now register the app in the Django Admin.
4. Add the URL to the template.
Also, Check Django Hosting Australia
Q25. Mention the differences between Django, Pyramid, and Flask.
Here are some major differences between Django, Pyramid, and flask. They are:
Flask is a “microframework” and is mainly used for small applications with simpler requirements. You are required to use an external library in Flask.
Flask is a lightweight Python framework (microframework) based on Werkzeug, Jinja 2. Unlike the Django framework, it will not bring you technical choice problems.
You are free to choose any template engine or ORM you like. Even if it is equipped with a Jinja template engine by default, you can choose freely at any time.
Pyramid is suitable for large applications. It is flexible and helps the developers to build the projects hassle-free.
Developers can choose databases, URL structures, template styles, etc. A pyramid is a general-purpose, open-source Python web application development framework.
Django is an advanced Python Web framework. It has built-in templates, forms, routing, authentication, basic database management, etc.
On the other hand, Pyramid involves routing and authentication.
Advanced Django Interview Questions and Answers for Beginners
Q26. Describe the use of file-based sessions in Django?
File-based sessions help you to store the data of your sessions in Django.
Q27. Can we call Django CMS?
Django is not exactly a CMS ( Content Management System), rather Django offers a CMS that is open-source for content management. If you desire to use a python framework then you can use Django CMS for publishing your content worldwide.
Q28. Can we achieve Django support for multiple-column Primary Keys?
Well, the answer is, unfortunately, No. You cannot achieve a multiple-column Primary key with Django. Only single-column primary keys are supported in Django.
Q29. Describe important parameters in signals?
Django provides a set of built-in signals that let user code get notified by Django itself of certain actions. Signals allow the senders to predict that some action has taken place. Signals include some useful notifications.
Some of the important parameters in signals include amplitude, magnitude, frequency, phase, duration, shape, polarization, modulation, level, or irradiance.
Q30. Describe Session in Django?
Django provides the following four ways to manage user sessions:
(1) Database-based session- A database-based session refers to storing the user’s session in the database.
(2) Cache-based session- As the name implies, a cache-based session saves the user’s session information in the memory cache. Compared with using a filesystem-based database, using a cache-based session can improve query performance.
(3) File-based session- File-based session refers to saving session information in a file on the server-side.
(4) Cookie-based sessions- Session cookies are stored in memory and never written to disk.
Q31. What files contain the Django template?
The Django template is a plain text file, which can be generated in any text-based file format, such as HTML, XML, CSV, etc.
Q32. What all middleware’s functionalities achieve in Django?
Django uses Middlewares to process requests and responses. It is a lightweight, low-level “plug-in” system for the global control of Django’s input or output, which can be understood as a built-in app or small framework. Each middleware component is responsible for implementing some specific functions.
For example, Django includes a middleware component Authentication Middleware that uses a session mechanism to associate users with requests.
You can adjust middleware as per your whims.
Q33. Is Django open-source/free?
Yeah! Django is an open-source and a free tool.
Q34. How Can You Set Up Static Files In Django?
● First of all, you must ensure that django.contrib.staticfiles is included in your INSTALLED_APPS.
● In your settings file, define STATIC_URL
● Now, in your templates, utilize the static template tag to build the URL for the given relative path using the configured STATICFILES_STORAGE.
● Then you can store your static files in a folder called static in your app.
Q35. What Makes Up Django Architecture?
Django’s architecture is similar to Model-View-Controller (MVC). Moreover, Django’s tier architecture is often referred to as Model-Template-View (MTV).
Django’s architecture has four main components:
1) Data Models are at the heart of any modern web application. The model is the most important part of the application, which constantly accesses data for any request from any session. Any model is a standard Python class. The Object-Oriented Mapper (ORM) provides these classes with direct access to databases.
2) Views perform a variety of functions, including controlling user requests, providing context depending on his role. The view is a regular function that is called in response to a request for some address (URL) and returns a context;
3) Templates are a form of data presentation. Templates have their own simple metalanguage and are one of the primary means of display;
4) URL is a mechanism for external access to views. Regular expressions embedded in the URL make the mechanism quite flexible.
Q36. Explain The Migration In Django And How You Can Do In SQL?
Django has a migration system that tracks changes in models and allows them to be pushed into the database. The team applies migrations to all applications in INSTALLED_APPS. It keeps the database in sync with current models and existing migrations.
Q37. Explain How You Can Use File-Based Sessions?
File-Based Sessions are used to store the data of the user at the time of visit on the web page. To use a file-based session you need to set the SESSION_ENGINE settings to “django.contrib.sessions.backends.file”
Q38. Mention What Command-Line Can Be Used To Load Data Into Django?
The command line Django-admin.py loaddata can be used to load data onto Django. The command line will then search the data and load the contents into the database.
Q39. Mention What Does The Django Field Class Types?
In Django the field class types are used to determine a few things:
● The column type, tells the database to store a particular kind of data
● The default HTML widget to use when rendering a form field.
● The minimal validation requirements. It is used in Django’s admin and in automatically-generated forms.